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Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such as problems including quantum physics, weather forecasting, climate research, molecular modeling (computing the structures and properties of chemical compounds, biological macromolecules, polymers, and crystals), and physical simulations (such as simulation of airplanes in wind tunnels, simulation of the detonation of nuclear weapons, and research into nuclear fusion). Today the supercomputers range in the speed of the order of 200 teraflops and we listed top ten supercomputers with performance of the order of petaflops.
No. 10 Roadrunner: United States
The US's Super Computer built by one of the most famous computing system manufacturers The IBM. The Project was executed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, USA. At this time the world's tenth fastest computer, the project expensed US$133-million. The Roadrunner is designed for a peak performance of 1.7 petaflops; achieving 1.026 on May 25, 2008 to become the world's first TOP500 Linpack sustained 1.0 petaflops system. Roadrunner being different from many existing supercomputers by the fact that it is a hybrid scheme design computer because it uses two different processor architectures.  The processors used in Road Runner's design scheme are; AMD Opteron 2210, operating at 1.8 GHz and IBM PowerXCell 8i, operating at 3.2 GHz. Cumulatively the Roadrunner is said to posses 122,400 cores. In November 2008, it reached a top performance of 1.456 petaflops, retaining its top spot in the TOP500 list.
No. 9 Tera 100: France
Europe's first built super computer which has attained its position in the TOP 500 listing. Tera 100 has formally broken the Petaflops obstacle, by recording a performance of 1.05 million billion operations a secosnd (1.05 Petaflops) in the LINPACK benchmark test, for a peak performance3 of 1.25 Petaflops. This performance test takes it to the level where it can be assumed as the most powerful super computer in Europe. According to the information provided by the bull; Tera 100 is a cluster of 4,370 bullx S series servers, equipped with 17,480 Intel® Xeon® 7500 processors. Its fundamental memory features over 140,000 memory modules, delivering a total capacity of 300 TB. It features some 20 petabytes (PB) of disc capability, reachable at a world record speed of 500 GB/sec.
No. 8 Hopper: United States
The system was installed in September 2010. According to the most recent publication of the TOP500 list, which ranks the world's top computers, the NERSC's Hopper; a 153,408 processor core Cray XE6 system managed 1.05 petaflops also measured as quadrillions of calculations per second running the Linpack benchmark, making it the eighth fastest in the world and second fastest in the U.S.
No. 7 Pleiades: United States
Pleiades is named after the astronomical open star cluster of the same name. The Pleiades World's 7th on the TOP500 list of the world's most powerful supercomputers. Serving NASA's state-of-the-art technology; it is one gigantic machine occupying approximately one hundred cabinets; it is used for meeting the agency's supercomputing requirements, allowing NASA scientists and engineers to demeanor modeling and imitation for NASA missions. The Pleiades system comprises of the following types of Intel® Xeon® processors: X5670 (Westmere), X5570 (Nehalem), and E5472 (Harpertown).
No. 6 Cielo: United States
The name Cielo; a Spanish word meaning sky, this Super Computer was built in order to perform more than one quadrillion floating point operations per second. This supercomputer will help NASA guarantee the safety, security, and efficiency of the nuclear stockpile while maintaining the moratorium on testing. Cielo is the next-generation potential class podium for the Laboratory’s Advanced Simulation and Computing Program. Cielo will allow scientists to boost their understanding of composite physics, as well as recover assurance in the analytical ability for supply stewardship.
No. 5 Tsubame: Japan
The Tsubame supercomputer functions at the GSIC Center at the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan. It has a crest of 2,288 Tflops and in June 2011 and ranked as the 5th most powerful supercomputer in the world. It was developed at the Tokyo Institute of Technology in association with NEC and HP, and has 1,400 nodes using both HP Proliant and NVIDIA Tesla processors.
No. 4 Nebulae: China
According to the TOP 500, The China's aspiration to enter the supercomputing arena has turned into obvious with a newly deployed super computer system called Nebulae; build from a Dawning TC3600 Blade system with Intel X5650 processors and NVidia Tesla C2050 GPUs. Nebulae at present is the fastest super computer worldwide with a theoretical peak performance at 2.98 PFlop/s. It is located at the newly build National Supercomputing Centre in Shenzhen, China.
No. 3 Jaguar: United States
The Jaguar, a Cray supercomputer at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE’s) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is ranked No. 3 with 1.75 petaflop/s.
No. 2 Tianhe-1A: China
Chinese had outdone the US and the world with the reveal of the world's 2nd fastest supercomputer. The fully equipped Tianhe-1A, placed at the National Supercomputer Center in Tianjin, has lightning speed of 2.507 petaflops as measured by the LINPACK benchmark. The specifications for the Tianhe-1A are 7,168 NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPUs and 14,336 Intel Xeon CPUs consuming 4.04 megawatts. It is said that the Tianhe-1A will attain 10 petaflops by the year 2012.
No. 1 K Computer: Japan
The K Computer leading the race of Super Computing with the best performance of gigantic 8.162 petaflops. The K Computer is a joint development of RIKEN and Fujitsu Company both of which are part of the High-Performance Computing Infrastructure (HPCI) initiative led by Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Configuration of the K computer began in the end of September 2010, with availability for shared use scheduled for 2012. The TOP500-ranked K computer system, currently in the configuration stage, has 672 computer racks equipped with a current total of 68,544 CPUs. This half-built system achieved the world's best LINPACK benchmark performance of 8.162 petaflops, to place it at the head of the TOP500 list.

Tag : Teknologi
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